Mitral Valve Repair


Mitral valve repair and mitral valve replacement are types of surgery to fix or replace a leaky or stiff mitral valve in the heart. The mitral valve is between the left heart chambers (left atrium and left ventricle).
Mitral valve repair and mitral valve replacement may be done as an open-heart surgery procedure or as minimally invasive heart surgery. Sometimes a mitral valve problem may be treated with a catheter-based procedure. The specific procedure used depends on the severity of your mitral valve disease and whether it's getting worse.

Mitral valve repair may be done to avoid complications that can occur with mitral valve replacement, such as blood clots due to mechanical valves and biological tissue valve failure.

Mitral valve repair is a surgical procedure performed to treat mitral valve disease, which can involve conditions like mitral valve regurgitation (leaking of the mitral valve) or mitral valve stenosis (narrowing of the mitral valve). The mitral valve is one of the four valves in the heart and is located between the left atrium and the left ventricle. Mitral valve repair aims to restore the proper functioning of this valve while preserving its natural anatomy. Here are some key points about mitral valve repair:

Indications: Mitral valve repair is typically recommended when the mitral valve disease is deemed reparable, and the patient's overall health makes them a suitable candidate for surgery. Repair is often preferred over replacement because it preserves the patient's own valve and tends to have better long-term outcomes.

Mitral Valve Regurgitation: This is the most common reason for mitral valve repair. It occurs when the valve does not close properly, allowing blood to flow backward into the left atrium during the heart's contraction. Repair involves correcting the underlying issue that causes the leakage, such as repairing or repositioning valve leaflets or the annulus (the ring-like structure supporting the valve).

Mitral Valve Stenosis: In this condition, the mitral valve becomes narrowed, limiting the flow of blood from the left atrium to the left ventricle. Repair may involve enlarging the valve opening or removing obstructive tissue.

Techniques : Mitral valve repair can be performed through traditional open-heart surgery or minimally invasive approaches, which involve smaller incisions. The choice of technique depends on the patient's specific condition and the surgeon's expertise.

Robotic-Assisted Surgery: Some mitral valve repairs are performed using robotic-assisted surgical systems like the da Vinci Surgical System. These systems offer enhanced precision and control.

Annuloplasty : This is a common component of mitral valve repair. Annuloplasty involves reshaping and reinforcing the mitral valve annulus (the ring of tissue around the valve) using a prosthetic ring or band. This helps ensure proper valve closure.

Chordal Reconstruction: If the mitral valve leaflets or the chordae tendineae (fibrous cords that anchor the valve leaflets to the heart muscle) are damaged, they may be repaired or reconstructed during the surgery.

Pericardial Patch: In some cases, a pericardial patch may be used to repair or augment the mitral valve.

Postoperative Care : After mitral valve repair, patients typically need a period of recovery and cardiac rehabilitation to regain strength and function. They may also require medication to manage symptoms or prevent complications.

Benefits :Mitral valve repair offers several advantages over valve replacement, including preservation of the patient's natural valve, reduced risk of blood clot formation, and potentially better long-term outcomes.

It's important to note that the decision to undergo mitral valve repair and the specific techniques used should be determined by a cardiac surgeon based on the patient's individual condition, overall health, and surgical expertise. Additionally, advances in cardiac surgery and techniques may have occurred since my last knowledge update in September 2021, so consulting with a healthcare professional for the most current information is advisable.